Balsam Woolly Adelgid Resources

2007Havill, N.P., Foottit, R.G., 2007. Biology and evolution of Adelgidae. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 53:325-349.
2007Havill, N.P., Foottit, R.G., von Dohlen, C.D., 2007. Evolution of host specialization in the Adelgidae (Insecta: Hemiptera) inferred from molecular phylogenetics. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 44: 357-370
2005Potter K.M., J. Frampton, and J. Sidebottom. 2005. IMPACTS OF BALSAM WOOLLY ADELGID ON THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN
SPRUCE-FIR ECOSYSTEM AND THE NORTH CAROLINA CHRISTMAS TREE INDUSTRY. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. USDA For. Serv. FHTET-2005-
01. 384 pp.
2004Sidebottom, J. 2004. Christmas Tree Notes: Balsam Woolly Adelgid. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service CTN-020. 4 p.
2003Jenkins, M.A. 2003. Impact of the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratz.) on an Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. dominated stand near the summit of Mount LeConte, Tennessee. Castanea 68(2): 109-118.
2001Fowler, G., J. Zhang, F.P. Hain, and J.F. Manville. 2001. The distribution pattern of two juvenile hormone related compounds in Fraser fir and the induced response to a balsam woolly adelgid infestation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31(10):1701-1707.
2001Mitchell, R.G. and P.E. Buffam. 2001. Patterns of long-term balsam woolly adelgid infesta- tions and effects in Oregon and Washington. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 16(3):121-126.
1999Fowler, G. 1999. The Potential of Juvabione as a Host Resistance Mechanism against the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae [Ratzeburg]). Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University Department of Entomology. 118 p.
1999Miles, P.W. 1999. Aphid saliva. Biol. Review 74:41-85. Cambridge Philosophical Society.
1997Sutton BA, Woosley RS, Butcher DJ. 1997. Determination of monoterpenes in oleoresin: A chemosystematic study of the interaction between Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) and balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Microchemical Journal 56, 332-42
1994Hollingsworth, R.G. and F.P. Hain. 1994. Effect of drought stress and infestation by the balsam woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on abnormal wood production in Fraser fir. Can. J. For. Res. 24:2295-2297.
1992Hollingworth, R.G. and F.P. Hain. 1992. Balsam woolly adeglid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) effects on wood and bark structure of Fraser fir and silver fir. Environ. Entomol. 21(5):1103-1109.
1992Nicholas, N.S., S.M. Zedaker, and C. Eagar. 1992. A comparison of overstory community structure in 3 Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 119(3):316-332.
1991Hollingsworth, R.G. and F.P. Hain. 1991. Balsam woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) and spruce-fir decline in the Southern Appalachians: assessing pest relevance in a dam- aged ecosystem. Florida Entomologist 74(2):179-187.
1991Hain, F. P.; Hollingsworth, R. G.; Arthur, F. H.; Sanchez, F.; Ross, R. K. 1991. Adelgid host interactions with special reference to the balsam woolly adelgid in North America. In: Baranchikov, Yuri N.; Mattson, William J.; Hain, Fred P.; Payne, Thomas L., eds. Forest Insect Guilds: Patterns of Interaction with Host Trees; 1989 August 13-17; Abakan, Siberia, U.S.S.R. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-153. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 271-287
1991Hain, F.P., R.G. Hollingsworth, F.H. Arthur, F. Sanchez, and R.K. Ross. 1991. Adelgid host interactions with special reference to the balsam woolly adelgid in North America. In Forest Insect Guilds: Patterns of Interaction with Host Trees, ed. Y.N. Baranchikov,
1991Hollingsworth, R.G., U. Blum, and F.P. Hain. 1991. The effect of adelgid-altered wood on sapwood conductance of Fraser fir Christmas trees. IAWA (Int. Assoc. Wood Anat.) Bull. New Ser. 12: 235-239.
1989W.J. Mattson, F.P. Hain, and T.L. Payne. U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-153: 271-287.
1988Dull, C.W., J.D. Ward, H.D. Brown, G.W. Bryan, W.H. Clerke, and R.J. Uhler. 1988. Evaluation of spruce and fir mortality in the Southern Appalachian mountains. USDA Forest Service Southern Region Protection Report R8-PR 13.
1988Ross, R.J. 1988. Patterns of Allelic Variation in Natural Populations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. 119 p.
1987Arthur, F.H. and Hain, F.P. 1987. Influence of balsam woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on monoterpenes found in bark and sapwood of Fraser fir. Environ. Entomol. 16: 712-715
1986Witter JA, Ragenovich IR. 1986. Regeneration of Fraser Fir Abies-Fraseri at Mt.-Mitchell North-Carolina USA after Depredations by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid Adelges-Piceae. Forest Science 32, 585-94
1986Arthur FH, Hain FP. 1986. Water Potential of Fraser Fir Abies-Fraseri Infested with Balsam Woolly Adelgid Adelges-Piceae Homoptera Adelgidae. Environmental Entomology 15, 911-3.
1986Timell, T.E. 1986. Compression Wood in Gymnosperms. Volume 3. Ecology of compres- sion wood formation, silviculture and compression wood, mechanism of compression wood action, compression wood in the lumber and pulp and paper industries, compression wood induced by the balsam woolly aphid, opposite wood. Springer-Verlag. p. 1339-2150.
1985Biggs, AR. 1985. Detection of impervious tissue in the tree bark with selective histochemistry and fluorescence microscopy. Stain Technol. 60: 299-304.
1985Arthur FH, Hain FP. 1985. Development of Wound Tissue in the Bark of Fraser Fir Abies-Fraseri and Its Relation to Injury by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid Adelges-Piceae. Journal of Entomological Science 20, 129-36
1985Hain FP, Arthur FH. 1985. The Role of Atmospheric Deposition in the Latitudinal Variation of Fraser Fir Abies-Fraseri Mortality Caused by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid Adelges-Piceae Hemiptera Homoptera Adelgidae a Hypothesis
1985Arthur, F.H. and F.P. Hain. 1985. Effects of selected chemicals on non-suberized impervious tissue (NIT) formation in Fraser fir. Journal of Entomological Science 20(3):305-311.
1983Foottit, R.G. and Mackauer, M. 1983. Subspecies of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in North America. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 7:299-304.
1981Hay, R.L. and C. Eagar. 1981. Stem morphology and physiology of Fraser fir in relation to balsam woolly aphid attack preference. Final Contract Report for Regional Chief Scien- tist, Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service. 60 p.
1981Haneman, D.M., H.L. Lambert, and D.D. Johnston. 1981. Detection and evaluation of the balsam woolly aphid infestations on Mount Rogers, Virginia, 1980. Forest Insect and Disease Management (US Forest Service, Southeast), Report #81-1-12.
1980Foottit, R.G. and M. Mackauer. 1980. Morphometric variation between populations of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in North America. Can. J. Zool. 58:1494-1503.
1978Schooley, H.O. and D.G. Bryant. 1978. The balsam woolly aphid in Newfoundland. Canada Forest Service, Newfoundland Forest Research Centre, Inf. Rep. N-X-160. 72 p.
1977Puritch, G.S. 1977. Distribution and phenolic composition of sapwood and heartwood in Abies grandis and the effects of the balsam woolly aphid. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 7(1):54-62.
1977Mullick, D.B. 1977. The non-specific nature of defense in bark and wood during wound- ing, insect and pathogen attack, pp. 395-441. In Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol. 11, ed. F.A. Loewus and V.C. Runeckles. New York: Plenum Publishing.
1976Schooley, H.O. 1976. Recovery of young balsam fir trees damaged by balsam woolly aphid. For. Chron. 52:143-4.
1976Saigo, R.H. 1976. Anatomical changes in the secondary phloem of grand fir (Abies grandis) induced by the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 54:1903-1910.
1975Mullick, D.B. 1975. A new tissue essential to necrophylactic periderm formation in the bark of four conifers. Canadian Journal of Botany 53(21):2443-2457.
1975Puritch, G.S., and Mullick, D.B., 1975. Effect of water stress on the rate of non-suberized impervious tissue formation following wounding in Abies grandis. Journal of experimental botany. 26(95): 903-910
1974Bryant, D.G. 1974. A review of the taxonomy, biology and importance of the adelgid pests of true firs. Canadian Forest Service, Newfoundland Forest Research Centre, Information Report N-X-111. 50 p.
1974Schooley, H.O. 1974. Balsam woolly aphid damage to the crowns of balsam fir trees. Can. For. Serv. Nfld. Inf. Rep. N-X-121. 27 p.
1974Puritch, G.S. and W.W. Nijholt. 1974. Occurrence of juvabione-related compounds in grand fir and Pacific silver fir infested by balsam woolly aphid. Can. J. Bot. 52:585-587.
1973Puritch, G.S. 1973. Effect of water stress on photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration of four Abies species. Can. J. For. Res. 3:293-298.
1973Fedde GF. 1973. Cone Production in Fraser Firs Infested by the Balsam Woolly Aphid Adelges-Piceae Homoptera Phylloxeridae. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 8, 127-30
1971Puritch, G.S. and M. Talmon-De LÕArmee. 1971. Effect of balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae, infestation on the food reserves of grand fir, Abies grandis. Can. J. Bot. 49:1219- 1223.
1971Puritch, G.S. and J.A. Petty. 1971. Effect of balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.), infestation on the xylem of Abies grandis (Doug.) Lindl. J. Exp. Bot. 22:946-952.
1971Hall, J., P. Singh, and H.O. Schooley. 1971. Survival and growth of some exotic firs in Newfoundland. For. Chron. 47:279-291.
1971Bryant, D.G. 1971. Balsam woolly aphid Adelges piceae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) seasonal and spatial development in crowns of balsam fir, Abies balsamea. Canadian Entomologist 103:1411-1420.
1971Puritch, G.S. and R.P.C. Johnson. 1971. Effects of infestation by the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.) on the ultrastructure of bordered-pit membranes of grand fir, Abies grandis (Doug.) Lindl. J. Exp. Bot. 22:953-958.
1971Puritch, G.S. 1971. Water permeability of the wood of grand fir (Abies grandis [Doug.] Lindl.) in relation to infestation by the balsam woolly aphid Adelges piceae (Ratz.). J. Exptl. Bot. 22:936-45.
1971Mullick, D.B. 1971. Natural pigment differences distinguish first and sequent periderms of conifers through a cryofixation and chemical techniques. Canadian Journal of Botany 49:1703-1711.
1970Forbes, A.R. and D.B. Mullick. 1970. The stylets of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Homoptera: Adelgidae). The Canadian Entomologist 102:1074-1082.
1970Greenbank, D.O. 1970. Climate and the ecology of the balsam woolly aphid. The Canadian Entomologist 102:546-578.
1970Amman, G.D. 1970. Phenomena of Adelges piceae populations (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) in North Carolina. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63(6):1727-1734.
1969Eichhorn, O. 1969. Problems of the determination of morphs in the genus Dreyfusia C.B. (Homoptera: Adelgidae), p. 437-446. In Proceedings of the 148th Annual Meeting of the Suisse Society of Natural Sciences in Einsiedeln (Sept. 27-29, 1969).
1968Foulger, A.N. 1968. Effect of aphid infestation on properties of grand fir. Forest Products Journal 18(1): 43-47.
1967Amman, G.D. and R.L. Talerico. 1967. Symptoms of infestation by the balsam woolly aphid displayed by Fraser fir and bracted balsam fir. USDA Forest Service Research Note SE-85. 4 p.
1967Mitchell, R.G. 1967. Translocation of dye in grand and subalpine firs infested by the balsam woolly adelgid. USDA Forest Service Research Note PNW-46. 17 p.
1967Eichhorn, O., 1967. On methods of differentiating the species of the harmful white woolly aphids (genus Dreyfusia CB = Adelges An.) on Fir, and the consequences for forest protection. Commonwealth Institute Biological Control Tech. Bull. No. 8, p. 53-82
1967Smith, F.H. 1967. Effects of balsam woolly aphid (Adelges piceae) infestation on cambial activity in Abies grandis. American Journal of Botany 54:1215-23.
1966Mitchell, R.G. 1966. Infestation characteristics of the balsam woolly aphid in the Pacific Northwest. U.S. Dept. Agric. Serv. Res. Pap. PNW-35. 18 p.
1965Slama, K. and C.M. Williams. 1965. Juvenile hormone activity for the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 54:411-414.
1965Miles, P.W. 1965. Studies on the salivary physiology of plant-bugs: the saliva of aphids. Journal of Insect Physiology 11:1261-1268.
1965Doerksen, A.H. and R.G. Mitchell. 1965. Effects of the balsam woolly aphid upon wood anatomy of some western true firs. Forest Science 11:181-188.
1964Balch, R.E., J. Clarke, and J.M. Bonga. 1964. Hormonal action in products of tumors and compression wood (in Abies balsamea) by an aphid (Adelges piceae). Nature 202:721- 722.
1961Mitchell, R.G., N.E. Johnson and J.A. Rudinsky. 1961. Seasonal history of the balsam woolly aphid (Adelges piceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Can. Ent. 93:794-798.
1959Silver, G.T. 1959. The balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.) in British Columbia. Bi-Mon. Progress Report, Can. Dept. Forest. 15(1):3.
1958Pschorn-Walcher, H. and H. Zwolfer. 1958. Preliminary investigations on the Adelges populations (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) living on the trunk of the silver fir. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 42:241-277. (In German.)
1958Adams, J.B. and J.W. McAllan. 1958. Pectinase in certain insects. Canadian Journal of Zoology 36: 305-308.
1958Speers, C.F. 1958. The balsam woolly aphid in the Southeast. Journal of Forestry 56:515- 516.
1956Pschorn-Walcher, H. and H. Zwolfer. 1956. The predator complex of the white-fir woolly aphids. (Dreyfusia: Adelgidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 39:63-75.
1956Rudinsky, J.A. 1956. Notes on the balsam woolly aphid. Presented by Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station at annual meeting of Northwest Forest Pest Action Council, 10/29/56 in Portland, Oregon. Weyerhaeuser Timber Company. 12 p.
1956Merker, E. and O. Eichhorn. 1956. (Grouping in the genus Adelges.) Die Naturwissenschaften 43: 453-454. (In German.)
1956Balch, R.E. and W.J. Carroll. 1956. The balsam woolly aphid. Canadian Department of Agriculture, Forest Biology Division, Publication 977. 7 p.
1956Varty, I.W. 1956. Adelges insects of silver firs. For. Comm., Edinburgh, Bull. 26. 75 p.
1952Balch, R.E. 1952. Studies of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.) and its effect on balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Canadian Department of Agriculture Publication 867. 76 p.
1952Keen, F.P. 1952. Insect enemies of western forests. USDA Misc. Pub. 273 (revised). Wash- ington, D.C. 280 p.
1928Annand, P.W. 1928. A Contribution Toward a Monograph of the Adelgidae (Phylloxeridae) of North America. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, California. 146 p.
1925Crystal. 1925. The genus Dreyfusia in Britain and its relation to the Silver fir. Phil. Trans. London Roy. Soc., Ser. B., CCXIV:29-61.
1916Kotinsky, J. 1916. The European fir trunk louse, Chermes (Dreyfusia) piceaea Ratz. Proc. Entomol.Soc. Wash. 18: 14-16.